自动门
自动门:直流无刷电动机理论基础
发布时间:2013/10/5
自动门讯:
直流无刷电动机理论基础
    针对普通的电流电动机的弊病,早在20世纪30年代,就有人开始研制以电子换向来代
替电刷机械换向的直流无刷电动机,并取得了一定成果。但由于当时大功率电子器件,如晶
闸臂、功率MOSFET、IGBT等仅处于初级发展阶段,没能找到理想的电子换相元器件,使
得这种电动机只能保留在实验室研究阶段,而无法推广使用。1955年,美国D.哈利森等人
首次申请了应用晶体管换向代替电动机机械换向器换向的专利,这就是现代直流无刷电动机
的雏形。但由于该电动机尚无启动转矩而不能产品化。尔后又经过人们多年努力,借助于霍
尔元件来实现换相的直流无刷电动机终于在1962年问世,从而开创了直流无剧电动机产品
化的新纪元。70年代以来,随着电力电子技术的飞速发展,许多新型的高性能半导体全控
型功率器件,如GTR、MOSFET、IGBT等相继出现,以及商性能永磁材料,如钐钴、钕铁
硼等的问世,均为直流无刷电动机的广泛应用奠定了坚实的基础。
    直流无刷电动机既具备交流电动机的结构简单、运行可靠、维护方便等一系列优点,又
具备直流电动机的运行效率高、无励磁损耗以及调速性能好等诸多特点,故在当今国民经
济各个领域,如医疗器械,仪器仪表、化工、轻纺以及家电中应用日益普及。在自动门的
拖动特别是平滑自动门拖动系统中,日前绝大部分厂家均用该种电机作为动力源。
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