自动门
自动门:测量结果的处理
发布时间:2015/5/20
自动门讯:
测量结果的处理
一个测量结果,通常可以用数字或图形两种形式表示,这里我们主要讨论以数字表示测量结果。用数字形式表示测量结果时,除了应注意有效数字的正确取舍外,还应掌握合理的数据处理方法,以减小测量过程中各种误差的影响。
1.有效数字及其表示方法。测量结果通常表示为一定的数值,如何确定测量结果数字的位数,称为测量结果的有效数字处理。
2.有效数字的化整规则。
3.有效数字的去处规则。在数据处理中,常需要运算一些精确度不相等的数值,此时可按一定规则计算,不仅节省时间,又可避免因计算过繁引起的错误。
对几个测量结果进行中间运算时,如有效数字倍数保留太多,将增加计算的麻烦,如保留太少又可能影响到测量精度,其保留位数多少原则上取决于参加运算的各数中精度最差的那一项,现分别将有关去处规律介绍于下:
1)加法去年。当几个不同精度的数值相加时,去处前应先将较精确的数化整,但要多保留一位有效数字;去处结果也应化整,其有不出现两个接近的数彼此相减的情况。
2)减法去处工。当相关的数差得较远时,有效数字的化整原则与加法相同;但如相减的数非常接近,由于相减将失去若干有效数字,帮除了尽量多保留有效数字外,应从测量方法上加以改进,使其不出现两个接近的数彼此相减的情况。
3)乘除法运算。当求数个精确度不同的数值乘积时,去处前应将较准确的各数化整,但要多保留一位有效数字;运算结果也应化整,有效数字位数应取与精确度位数最小的有效数字相同的位数。
4)乘方及开方运算。运算结果应比原数据多保留一位有效数字。
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