自动门
自动门:系统误差
发布时间:2015/4/30
自动门讯:
系统误差,是指在一定的条件下,对同一物理量进行多次重复测量时,其误差的数值和符号均保持不变,或按某种书籍的函数规律变化的误差。
系统误差又可分为:
(1)恒定系差。恒定系差是指在一定条件下,误差的数值及符号都保持不变的系统误差。
(2)变值系差。变值系差是指在一定条件下,按某一确切规律变化的系统误差,它根据其变化规律又可分为以下几种情况:
  1)累进性系。累进性系差是指在整个测量过程中误差的数值在逐渐增加或逐渐减少的系统误差。例如蓄电池在使用过程中会因放电而使其电动势逐渐下降,形成累进性误差。
  2)周期性系差。周期性差是指在测量过程中误差的数值发生周期性变化的系统误差。例如,当对某物理量进行昼夜连续测量时,每昼夜平均温度基本上按周期性变化。
系统误差表明了一个测量结果偏离约定真值的程度。系统误差愈小,测量就越准确,所以还经常用准确度一词来表征系统误差大小。系统误差越小,准确度越高,系统误差越大,准确度越低。
产生系统误差的主要原因:
由于仪表本身材料、零部位及工艺有缺陷等原因造成的仪表误差。由于环境温度、温度、压力的变化以及其他外界干扰引起的环境误差,赋于观测者不熟练或不良习惯所造成的读数误差等。例如用电子电压表测量电压时,由于示进行零点核准,造成读数不准,产生了零点误差。用等臂天平衡量时,如事先未把两等臂调平衡,也将出现一个等值的误差等。
单纯采用增加测量次数的方法,并不能减少系统误差对测量结果的影响。必须掌握系统误差有规律性这个特点,找出产生系统误差的原因,掌握其规律性,通过引入修正值加以削除。例如,用热电偶测温时,由于热电偶的热接点温度与热电偶输出毫伏电势之间并不是线性关系,当我们按线性关系处理时就会产生非线性误差,但如掌握了其修正值就可以消除。但还应指出,系统误差不是容易发现和确定的,由于测量仪表和测试条件的复杂性使得系统误差的确定比较困难,因此在设计制造与使用仪表时应认真对待它。
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